|Deriving Einstein's Mass - Energy Equation E = mc2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In a brilliant paper titled "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend upon its Energy-Content?" published in September 1905 in the German physics journal Annalen der Physik, 17, 1905 ("Ist die Tragheit eines Korpers von seinem Energiegehalt abha¤ngig?") Einstein was able to show that the mass of an object is a measure of its energy content. In this Ï - Physics Initiative in Education module Einstein's Mass-Energy Equation E = mc2 is derived and some of its implications are described...
Keywords: Einstein; Mass-Energy; E = mc2; Momentum of Light; Nichols - Hull; Einstein Box Thought Experiment; Sun and Fusion; Pion Decay and Relativistic Energy, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 11, Snell's Law Experiment - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 11 experiment on refraction and Snell's Law. This document includes several ray tracings which can be used by students to do a take-home lab.
Keywords: Physics 11; Snell's Law Experiment; Refraction, Pythagoras Publishing
|Physics 12, Coulomb's Law - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 12 talk titled Coulomb's Law.
Keywords: Physics 12; Coulomb's Law, Pythagoras Publishing
|The Period of a Simple Pendulum, an elementary derivation without calculus - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In this article the period of a simple pendulum is derived using pre-calculus kinematics. This heurtistic approach is a good introduction to for non-calculus students to the kinematics of a simple pendulum. Mention is made of the early experiments of Leonardo da Vinci and of Galileo Galilei. Lagrange and Einstein.
Keywords: Period of a Simple Pendulum; Galileo; non-calculus; CUPJ; cupj, Pythagoras Publishing
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 1, Properties of Nuclei University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 1, Properties of Nuclei, packing fraction, binding energy, semi-empirical atomic mass formula, shell, spin, two element radioactive decay chain
|Physics 11, Speed of Sound Experiment - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 11 speed of sound experiment involving temperature dependence is the purpose of this experiment. The students take two measurements one with air above cold water and one with air above warm water, and then graphs and analyzes the data. A scatter plot of class results can be used in the analysis. This lab teaches several key physics lab concepts.
Keywords: Physics 11; Speed of Sound Experiment; temperature dependence, Pythagoras Publishing
|The U-2 and the Avro Arrow - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In September 1956 Canadian RCAF fighter pilots flying CF-86 Sabre jets with NATO in Europe inadvertently down an American CIA U-2 over Germany. The pilot Howard Carey was killed. The Canadian Incident, as it has become known, is inextricably tied to the decision to cancel the Avro Arrow CF-105 project in February 1959. The reader is welcome to read the Canadian Incident script as well posted at archive.org...
Keywords: U-2; Avro Arrow; CF-86 Sabre jets; RCAF; CIA., Pythagoras Publishing
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 9 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 9 University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 9, neutron physics, elastic scattering, diffusion theory, neutron distribution, scattering length, theory of chain reactions, Elementary theory of reacting piles
|Copernicus Work Book - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A work book to introduce On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres by Copernicus. The work book includes excerpts of Nicholas Copernicus' 1543 book, a biography, contributions By Sir Jean Jeans and Max Planck about Copernicus as well as a description of the Apparent Motion and Orbits of the Planets. A digital book prepared by Pythagoras Publishing of Vancouver, BC, Canada
Keywords: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Nicholas Copernicus; Sir Jean Jeans; Max Planck; Pythagoras Publishing
|A Simple Derivation of the Equations of Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The implications of the two simple postulates of Special Relativity proposed by Albert Einstein are presented in a succinct form in this paper. Two additional heuristic postulates are explained. The simple algebraic derivation of the equations of Special Relativity was shared by the author to Dr. F. A. Kaempffer and Dr. George Volkoff during the course of a pleasant conversation in 1984.
Keywords: Einstein; Special Relativity; Simple Derivations; Lorentz Transformation; heuristic postulates
|The Parity Operator for the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In undergraduate quantum mechanics parity is introduced with the creation and annihilation operators (the Fock representation) for the one dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator. In this paper a pedagogical approach is taken to derive the parity operator in terms of this operator formalism.
Keywords: Parity Operator; Quantum Harmonic Oscillator. creation operator; annihilation operator; Fock representation; CUPJ; cupj
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 6 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Muclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 6 University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 6, Nuclear Forces, mesons, saturation of nuclear forces, Exchange Forces, deuterons, neutron-proton scattering, proton-proton scattering, spin-spin interaction, neutron-neutron forces
|A Look at Gifted Children in the Sciences, Four Case Studies - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Prodigiousness is shared between boys and girls, but genius is predominately a male attribute. The four case studies look at Albert Einstein, Kurt Godel, Paul Erdos and Srinivasa Ramanujan. Gifted Children have special needs. While gifted children inspire admiration, left to their own devices in a normal classroom, they suffer neglect, ridicule and misunderstanding.
Keywords: Albert Einstein; Kurt Godel; Paul Erdos; Srinivasa Ramanujan; Case Study Gifted Children, Pythagoras Publishing
|On the Interaction of Elementary Particles by Yukawa - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Yukawa's 1934 paper which hypothesized the existence of the pion, the quanta holding the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus.
Keywords: Yukawa; Pions
|The Time Reversal Operator and the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In this paper, a pedagogical introduction to the Time Reversal Operator Î for the one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) is presented. Time does not appear as a Hermitian Operator in Schrodinger's equation such as the position or the momentum operator does, time is merely a parameter. It is shown that the Time Reversal Operator Î is equal to K, the complex conjugate operator for the QHO.
Keywords: Time Reversal Operator; Quantum Harmonic Oscillator; Quantum Mechanics; CUPJ; cupj, Pythagoras Publishing
|Finding the Size of a Right Triangle using its known Area and Perimeter - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The Right Angle Triangle is one of the most widely studied basic trigonometric shape. In this short paper an algorithm to determine the dimension, or size, of the right triangle using the values of its known Area and Perimeter is derived. The two algorithms we have derived for the sum and difference of a and b (a + b) = (P^2 + 4A) / 2P and (a â b) = (1/2) â [P^2 â 24A + 16 (A/P)^2] lend themselves readily to calculation...
Keywords: right triangle; perimeter; area; finding the values for a b and c; Pythagorean Theorem
|The Chemistry of the Ozone Layer - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A presentation about the chemistry of the ozone layer and how CFC affects the thin layer of atmosphere that contains ozone produced by the interaction of ultraviolet light form the sun with the oxygen in the atmosphere. An attached paper to the talk gives an explanation of CFC's adhere to how ice crystals high up in the atmosphere during winter months and how the thawing of the ice crystals in the spring caused the release of an accumulated stock of CFC - hence the rapid growth of the hole in th...
Keywords: Ozone Layer; CFC; depletion high atmosphere; ice crystals; adhesion
|Using the Weierstrass Substitution to Solve the Integrals for Cosine and Sine - Patrick Bruskiewich|
To simplify an integral that is a rational function in cos(x) or sin(x), a substitution of the form t= tanâ¡(ax/2) will convert the integrand into an ordinary rational function in t. This substitution, is known as the Weierstrass Substitution, and honours the mathematician, Karl Weierstrass (1815-1897) who developed the technique. In this short paper the integrals for sine and cosine are solved using the Weierstrass Substitution
Keywords: Weierstrass Substitution; Integration; Calculus; mathematics; mathematician; cosine; sine; rational expression; transformation
|Cardan's Sophistic Sum and Product Question from Ars Magna - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In his book Ars Magna (the Great Art) of 1545 the mathematician Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), also known as Cardan, presented his famous Sum and Product question: What two numbers have a sum of ten and a product of 40? Cardan called this question Sophistic because he saw no real world or physical meaning to the solution to his question. In his own words he said of his Sophistic question that its solution " .....
Keywords: Cardan; Cardano. Sphistic Question; Magical Genius; Ars Magna; Volkoff; Kamepffer; Complex Numbers
|Albert Einstein, Karl Schwarzschild and the Schwarzschild Metric - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A close look at the life and work of Karl Schwarzschild and in particular the Schwarzschild Metric and his two papers from 1916. It is evident that scientists like Riemann and Schwarzschild were looking at gravity as a curving of space long before Einstein and his famous 1916 paper on the Theory of General Relativity. Einstein was definitely not the first physicist to suggest that space-time was curved...
Keywords: Karl Schwarzschild; Albert Einstein; Schwarzschild Metric; George Volkoff; Oppenheimer; Riemann; equation of state, Oppenheimer-Volkoff Equation of State
|Introduction to the Theory of Relativity: Part 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Introduction to the Theory of Relativity by Peter Bergmann Part 1: Chapters 1- 5 Prentice Hall, New York , 1948
Keywords: Bergmann; Introduction to the Theory of Relativity; Frames of Reference; Coordinate Transformation; Classical Mechanics; Light; Lorentz Transformation; Vector Calculus; Tensor Calculus
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 4 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 4 University of Chicago Press 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 4, Beta decay, rate of decay, beta decay, Kurie decay, selection rule, Gamow-Teller, Neutrino hypothesis, Double beta decay
|George Volkoff and Neutron Stars - Patrick Bruskiewich|
George Volkoff and J. Robert Oppenheimer laid the foundation for our understanding of neutron stars in a 1939 paper. This article, the first of three about Dr. George Volkoff, describes his work on neutron stars and the Oppenheimer-Volkoff Equation of state for neutron stars. Had Oppenheimer lived a few months longer it is speculated Volkoff and Oppenheimer would have shared the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics with Hans Bethe...
Keywords: Neutron Stars; George Volkoff; Oppenheimer Volkoff equation; UBC; CUPJ; cupj
|Introduction to the Theory of Relativity: Part 3 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Introduction to the Theory of Relativity by Peter Bergmann Part 3: Chapter 10 - 13 Prentice-Hall, New York 1948
Keywords: Bergmann; Introduction to the Theory of Relativity; Principle of Equivalence; Riemann-Christoffel Curvature Tensor; Field Equations; Schwarzchild solution; Experimental Tests
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 2: Interaction of Radiation with matter University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 2, Interaction of Radiation with matter, Bohr Formula, scattering due to a coulomb field, multiple scattering, Compton Scattering, Klein-Nishina Formula, radiation by fast electron, pair production, absorption of photons
|George Volkoff, UBC and the TRIUMF Project (the Lost Wheeler Letter and the Oppenheimer Hearings) - Patrick Bruskiewich|
This third article about George Volkoff describes his contributions to the University of British Columbia (UBC) and TRIUMF, Canada's National Accelerator Laboratory on the south campus of UBC. Included in this articles are stories, derived from primary sources, about Einstein, Leopold Infeld, Frederick Kaempffer, and Professor Opechowski (Pritchard should read Pickard in this article). Of special note are the comments by I.I...
Keywords: Volkoff; TRIUMF; I.I. Rabi; Edward Teller; hydrogen bomb; the lost Wheeler letter; the Oppenheimer Hearings; John Wheeler; CUPJ; cupj
|G. H. Hardy Quotes from his A Mathematician's Apology - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In this little paper I have collected some quotes from A Mathematician's Apology by G.H. Hardy, Cambridge University Press, 1967. This little article was lost amongst the author's notes in 1983 and only recently found in a box of old manuscripts.
Keywords: G.H. Hardy; Quotes from A Mathematician's Apology; mathematics; creativity; life in general; Einstein
|Physics 12, Electrostatics - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A physics 12 talk titled Electrostatics.
Keywords: Physics 12; Electrostatics, Pythagoras Publishing
|The Myth of Language and the Kind and Gentle Woman - Patrick Bruskiewich|
There is no greater myth that perpetuates the feminist mystique than the myth that woman are by their very nature kind, thoughtful and altruistic. In reality, they are after all human just like the men. Many feminists strive to perpetuate biased stereotypes and questionable assumptions both about what it is to be female, and about maleness, male anger and male aggression. A look at the nature of Total War and the Nuremberg Tribunal Findings, about who voted Hitler into power and why...
Keywords: Myth; Kind and Gentle Woman; gender politics; Von Neumann Zero Sum Theory; Nash's Theory of Competitive Equilibrium; Democracy; Parliament; the Rule of Law; The International Court; the United Nations; NATO; male construct, Pythagoras Publishing
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 10 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics with Enrico Fermi Chapter 10 University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 10, Cosmic Rays, cascade, latitude effect, forbidden regions
|David Suzuki - a Bomb Fell on Hiroshima - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Why do the Suzuki, Nakamura and Yamamoto clans have such a hatred towards Dr. Gordon Shrum and the wartime President of UBC? It might have something to do with the fact that Dr. Gordon Shrum and the wartime President of UBC, as well as some of the colleagues and friends of these gentleman, played an important role in defeating the Emperor of Japan and the Suzuki, Nakamura and Yamamoto Clans during the Second World War...
Keywords: David Suzuki; Japanese wartime nuclear weapons program; Asian Holocaust; Asian Holocaust denier; UBC; Japanese Canadians; Honorary degrees; War Crimes; Suzuki; Nakamura; 2012; Little Boy; Volkoff; Warren; Pickard; Montgomery Hyde; William Stephenson; Intrepid; Suzuki Tatsuaburo; Hungnam North Korea; German Glock; Nazi Bell; Gerlach; von Ardenne; U-233; U-235; U-234; I-52
|Emily Carr, Gestalt, Science 201 (week 13) - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The week thirteen notes titled Gestalt, for Science 201, Vision Perception and Science taught by the author at the Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design (refer to Science 201 Course Outline).
Keywords: Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design; Science 201; Gestalt
|Station Point Grey and Very Special Intelligence: Part 2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
In this article, part 2 of the series, the role that Station Point Grey played in the war against the blockade running German and Japanese submarines is presented with an emphasis on the transfer of special cargo such as men and strategic materials, as well as drawings and parts for advanced radar, aircraft, rocket and electronics, is presented. The Asaka Maru Affair from 1941 is presented, The planning and lead up to the attack on Pearl Harbour by the Imperial Japanese Navy is described, with p...
Keywords: Station Point Grey; Special Intelligence; Tokyo Berlin messages; UBC; Arlington Hall; Bletchley Park; NSA; decrypts; blockade running submarines; Asaka Maru; Winston Churchill; R. V. Jones; Scientific Intelligence; radar; aircraft; U-864; I-52; TRICYCLE; Pearl Harbour; Taranto Raid, Pythagoras Publishing, David Suzuki, Unit 731, Ishii, Asian Holocaust, Asian Holocaust denier, UBC, Japanese Canadians, Honorary degrees , War Crimes, Suzuki, Nakamura, 2012
|The Magic of Numbers: Chapter One â with Guided Notes - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The Magic of Numbers: Chapter One â with Guided Notes by Eric Temple Bell Transcribed and annotated by Patrick Bruskiewich Excerpt from The Magic of Numbers. The entire book, complete with Guided Notes is available in three volumes through Amazon Â© Patrick Bruskiewich 2014, Vancouver, BC, Canada All rights reserved. This excerpt, or any part thereof, must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the author...
Keywords: Mathematics; Pythagoras; Magic of Numbers; Eric Temple Bell; Guided Notes
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 5 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 5 University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 5, Gamma Radiation, spontaneous emission, dipole emission, multipole emission, angular emission, selection rules, parity, internal conversion
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 7 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 7 University of Chicago Press
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 7, mesons, virtual states
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 3 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 3 University of Chicago Press
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 3, alpha emission, alpha decay, virtual level of alpha particle, Geiger-Nuttall Law, alpha decay spectra
|Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi: Chapter 8 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Nuclear Physics by Enrico Fermi Chapter 8 University of Chicago Press, 1950
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Nuclear Physics; textbook; Chapter 8, nuclear reactions, compound nucleus, resonant state, nuclear gas model, nuclear evaporation, fission, nuclear orbit model, radiative capture, photonuclear reaction, photodisintegration of deuterium
|Elementary Particles by Enrico Fermi: Part 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Elementary Particles by Enrico Fermi Chapters 1 to 3, Chapter 1: Quanta as the Field as Particles, Chapter 2: Interaction of the Fields, Chapter 3: The Interaction Constants Yale University Press, 1951
Keywords: Enrico Fermi; Elementary Particles; Quanta; Fields; Interaction Constants; Pions; Neutrinos
|Solutions in Complex Analysis: Part 3 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Some additional solutions to Complex Analysis Problems,from Churchill version two, as well as one general solution to a common geometry problem. Having this general result makes an entire class of integrals straightforward to evaluate. Note the symmetry between integrals with cos or sin in the denominator. In part 4 I shall solve for the sum in question 2. More solutions to come â¦. having so much fun!
Keywords: Complex Analysis; solutions; residue theory, Pythagoras Publishing
|Photodisintegration and Photoneutrons in Physical and Astrophysical Systems - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Several physical and astrophysical system that involve photodisintegration and photoneutrons are reviewed, including deuterium and beryllium, as well as the Teller-Ulam configuration, inverse Compton scattering, Type I supernovae, the Eddington Limit, as well as a possible link between Wolf-Rayet stars and Gamma Ray Bursts
Keywords: Photodisintegration; Photoneutrons; deuterium; beryllium; Teller-Ulam configuration; inverse Compton scattering; Type I supernovae; Eddington Limit; Wolf-Rayet stars; Gamma Ray Burst
|Personal Recollections about P.A.M. Dirac, by Dr. Maurice Pryce - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Some personal recollections about the life and achievements of Paul Dirac by Maurice Pryce, one of Dirac's finest graduate students. You will enjoy the comments by Kapitza teasing Dirac "positive electrons ... positive electrons, put that into your theory!" at a Cambridge symposium in late 1932/early 1933. Of course Dirac would do so and win a Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory of the Relativistic Positron...
Keywords: Paul Dirac; Maurice Pryce; Kapitza; positive electrons; positrons; Quantum Mechanics, Nobel Prize in Physics, Pythagoras Publishing
|Emily Carr, Dreams, Science 201 (week 13) - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The week thirteen notes titled Dreams, for Science 201, Vision Perception and Science taught by the author at the Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design (refer to Science 201 Course Outline).
Keywords: Emily Carr Institute for Art and Design; Science 201; Dreams
|Euler's Treat - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Leonard Euler (1707-1783) was the leading mathematician of his age. One of his more endearing contributions to mathematics was his equation equating of the natural exponent of a complex function to the cosine and sine function, known as Euler's Treat. This little paper was written with Mr. Andrew Jarvis, who is now at RMC in Kingston.
Keywords: Euler's Treat; exponential; complex number; cosine and sine; CUPJ; cupj, Pythagoras Publishing
|Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal, November 2009, Part 1 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
The November 2009 edition of the Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal, part 1. As Editor in Chief of this edition's publication I am posting this edition in two parts. There is an interview of Dr. Ralph Sultan and my editorial "Always be a Good Samaritan."
Keywords: Canadian Undergraduate Physics Journal; November 2009; Part 1; Ralph Sultan; Always Be a Good Samaritan
|The Search for Masaccio, His Trinity and the Hidden Message within - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Masaccio, originally named Tommaso Cassai, was born in San Giovanni Valdarno, near Florence, on December 21, 1401. He owes his Christian name to St. Thomas on whose saint's day he was baptized. His family name, Cassai, comes from the trade of his father's family who were carpenters - cabinet makers, i.e. those who build chests ("casse" hence "cassai"). The fresco Holy Trinity, on the wall of the Church Santa Maria Novella, Florence was painted in about 1425...
Keywords: Masaccio; Trinity; Hidden Message; Mystery; perspective
|Organizing for Innovation: Part 2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Organizing for Innovation: A Systems Approach for Technical Management By J.A. Morton, VP Electronics Technology, Bell Telephone Laboratory, Inc. Chapters 4 - 7 McGraw Hill, NY, 1971
Keywords: Technology; Innovation; Organizing; Technical Management; Laboratory; Electronics
|Elementary Nuclear Theory: Part 2 - Patrick Bruskiewich|
Elementary Nuclear Theory by Hans Bethe Chapter 14 - 17 John Wiley and Sons, 1947
Keywords: Elementary Nuclear Theory; Bethe; Nuclei; Neutrino; Proton; Neutron; Deuteron; Saturation of Nuclear Forces; Meson Force; Yukawa Theory; Beta Decay; Compound Nucleus; Non-central forces
|The Restless Atom and The Expanding Universe - Patrick Bruskiewich|
A talk given in 2011 that begins with Euclid's Optiks, and continues on to Leonardo and ray tracing, and Johannes Kepler's thin lens equation, to Newton the solar spectrum and his Optiks,light and photons, Richard Feynman and Quantumelectrodynamics, Canadian physicist and Nobel Physics Prize winner Arthur Schawlow and the Laser, Canadian Astronomer Andrew McKellar, The Big Bang, the Cosmic Background Radiation and Gamma Ray Bursts...
Keywords: Euclid's Optiks; Leonardo da Vinci; ray tracing; Kepler's thin lens equation; Newton and spectrum; Feynman QED; Schawlow laser; Andrew McKellar; Big Bang; Cosmic Background Radiation; Gamma Ray Bursts, Pythagoras Publishing
|The Bruskiewich - Volkoff - Von Neumann Algorithm: A Simulation of a Random Two or Three State System - Patrick Bruskiewich|
This manuscript was co-written in 1982 with Dr. George Volkoff but remained lost in the primary author's papers, until recently rediscovered with other manuscripts. The crux of this paper stems from discussions that the primary author had with Dr. Volkoff, and prior discussions George had with his colleagues Stanislaw Ulam and the late John von Neumann. Using the Ulam Mapping Function an algorithm is developed to produce pseudo-random two and three state selection, such as coin tosses and random...
Keywords: Bruskiewich Volkoff Von Neumann Algorithm; George Volkoff; John von Neumann; Stanislaw Ulam; Ulam Mapping Function; random numbers; coin toss; two state system; three state system, Pythagoras Publishing, mathematics, mathematicians